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Our team utilizes minimally invasive techniques to treat disorders, pain, and fractures of the spine—the most important system in our body.

Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

What is it? Spondylolysis is a crack or stress fracture in the spine’s vertebrae. When this fracture weakens the bone to the point that it is unable to maintain its proper position, that’s called Spondylolisthesis.

What causes it? These conditions are likely to occur due to frequent strenuous activity that puts stress on the back. Sports like gymnastics, football, and weight lifting are more likely to cause such stress and fractures in the spine. Sometimes, these conditions can be attributed to thinner than normal vertebrae at birth.

Who’s At Risk? These conditions most often occur in children and adolescents who participate in sports that require overstretching/hyperextension of the lower back.

How Is It Treated? After a physical examination and x-rays, we will suggest a surgical treatment (such as spinal fusion) and care as required.

Neck Pain

What Is It? Neck pain is an irritating sensation or stiffness experienced throughout the neck.

What causes it? Neck pain can be caused by a wide variety of situations, particularly anything that causes inflammation in the vertebrae.

Who’s At Risk? Everyone is at risk of this condition, particularly those who sit immobile for long periods of time or are at risk of degenerative diseases.

How Is It Treated? Our team of doctors treat this kind of pain either through medication, physical therapy, or, in extreme cases, surgery.

Spinal Fractures

What is it? Like other bones in the body, fractures can occur in the spine as well. Most fractures develop between the thoracic and lumbar spine.

What causes it? Fractures may be caused by conditions that weaken bone structure, such as osteoporosis. Serious fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine may also result from high-velocity trauma such as a vehicle collision, falling from a height, a sporting accident, or a gunshot wound. Often fractures will go unnoticed and develop over a period of time by low-impact events like twisting or falling from standing.

Who’s At Risk? This depends on the cause of the fracture and injuries sustained in the spinal area. Even a minor fall can turn serious.

How Is It Treated? Our team treats spinal fractures individually based on further examinations and the severity of each case.


What is it? Myelopathy is an injury to the spinal cord caused by compression of the vertebrae.

What causes it? Myelopathy is caused by severe blunt force trauma to the spine, and can emerge from sports injuries, slips and falls, or from degenerative diseases.

Who’s At Risk? This condition does not typically affect individuals under 50 or who do not have degenerative diseases in their family history.

How Is It Treated? Our team of doctors can assist with treatment of myelopathy through non-invasive means such as bracing, physiotherapy, or medication, as well as through surgical means to physically decompress the spine.

Herniated Disk

What is it? Disks are soft, rubbery pads found between the vertebrae that make up the spinal column—allowing us to flex or bend and act as shock absorbers. They are composed of a thick outer ring of cartilage, water content, and a gel-like nucleus. Any rupture in the disks is called a herniated disk.

What causes it? When the nucleus pushes away from the spine and pressurizes the nerves it is considered herniated. This results in pain, numbness, and/or weakness in one or both legs. Herniated disks are also a common source of back or neck pain. As people age, the water content in the disks decreases making them weak, less flexible, and causes them to shrink.

Who’s At Risk? The disks weaken with age. Adults and Children have a higher water content in their disks, putting them at a lower risk of rupturing. Aside from aging, activities such as improper lifting, smoking, sudden pressure, and repetitive strenuous activities can weaken the disks.

How Is It Treated? Depending on the severity of the patient’s discomfort, conservative (non-surgical) treatments may be sufficient. However, surgical treatments are an option for those experiencing pain or seeing no success with their conservative treatment regimen.

Arm Radiculopathy

What is it? Arm Radiculopathy, or the “pinched nerve” is the sensation of pain in your upper arm when a nerve is irritated or under excessive pressure.

What causes it? Pain of this kind is caused when a nerve root is placed with mechanical compression it is not meant to face during movement.

Who’s At Risk? Everyone is at risk of this condition, particularly those who sit immobile for long periods of time or are at risk of degenerative diseases.

How Is It Treated? Our team of doctors treat this kind of pain either through extensive physical therapy to soothe and relieve the nerve, or through surgery to artificially decompress the area.

Kyphosis Disorder

What is it? Also called round back, kyphosis is an abnormality in the spinal curve in the upper back. Natural spinal curvature is important for balancing and standing upright. Incorrect posture and congenital or structural deformities can change this curvature over time. Kyphosis Disorder can be painful and can go on to affect muscles in the thighs.

What causes it? Poor posture, congenital, or structural deformity of the spine (called Scheuermann’s kyphosis) can cause Kyphosis disorder. Postural kyphosis is rarely painful and does not usually become severe. Congenital Kyphosis is when the spinal column fails to develop normally and is present at birth which—worsening with age. Scheuermann’s kyphosis is a more severe deformity where consecutive vertebrae force the spine into an abnormal shape.

Who’s At Risk? Postural kyphosis occurs mostly in girls while other forms of kyphosis can develop in anyone with a spinal deformity. This deformity can be visible, if not painful. Rounded shoulders, visible hump on the back, mild back pain, tightened muscles in the back of the thighs, or stiffness in the spine are signs for worry.

How Is It Treated? Through various tests and as per the severity of the individual’s condition, our team of qualified doctors will suggest treatment such as spinal fusion. Surgery is usually accompanied by after-care exercises to improve posture and strengthen the spine.

Low Back Pain

What is it? This is common and almost everyone experiences low back pain at some point in their lives. It can be mild to severe, slow to sudden, short-lived to long-lasting—but can make everyday activities difficult and uncomfortable.

What causes it? Specific movements of lifting or bending can be a cause, as well as age. Overactivity is a common cause of low back pain, while other reasons could be a disorder in the lower back.

Who’s At Risk? The risk of low back pain increases with age. However, many conditions causing low back pain can be treated, allowing patients to enjoy their golden years pain-free.

How Is It Treated? As there are so many causes of lower back pain, treatment must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

What is it? The normal wear-and-tear on the spine as a product of aging is called spinal stenosis. This can lead to the narrowing of the spinal canal, putting pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. This may result in numbness or weakness in the legs and lower back.

What causes it? Arthritis, which refers to degeneration of any joint in the body, is the most common cause of spinal stenosis. The spinal tissue loses water content and tends to dry out and weaken as old age progresses—causing the disks to collapse. Some people are born with back problems that develop into stenosis later on.

Who’s At Risk? Spinal stenosis most often occurs in adults over 60 years old. By the age of 50, up to 95% of people will face degenerative changes in their spine. If you are facing back pain, weakness in the legs, or burning pain or numbness in the buttocks or legs, it may be a sign to get examined.

How Is It Treated? After a few imaging tests, diagnosis, and studying the patient’s medical history our team of surgeons can suggest treatment. Decompression of nerves, spinal fusion, or rehabilitation post surgery may be recommended.

Sacroiliac Joint (SI Joint)

What is it? Sacroiliac joint pain is pain radiating from the joint at the base of the spine and pelvis where the sacrum and the ilium bones meet.

What causes it? Pain from this joint can be caused by two extremes—either through too much movement in the pelvis causing the joint to be loose, or through too little movement.

Who’s At Risk? Any individual who has trouble walking or suffers from an uneven gait can be subject to this pain, as it causes the pelvis to move unnaturally.

How Is It Treated? Our team of doctors can assist with treatment for your joint by either prescribing pain medication, advising more physical activity, or through injections to the joint for more cushioning.


What is it? When a ruptured (or herniated) disk in the spinal column presses on the nerve roots in the lower back—erupting in sudden, radiating pain. Sciatica flare ups can feel like a bad leg cramp, with sharp (knife-like) pain.

What causes it? Sciatica is a symptom of aging and general wear and tear. Sudden pressure on the lower portion of the spine can also aggravate this condition. Sometimes a painful leg cramp can turn out to be sciatica.

Who’s At Risk? Sciatica issues mostly occur between the ages of 30 and 50 years. Extended pain in the lower back, or “pins and needles” sensations through the legs are signs to consult an orthopedic doctor.

How Is It Treated? If the pain is lasting for an unusually long time, it may need surgical treatment. Our qualified team will diagnose and suggest a course of treatment basis on your medical history and tests.


What is it? Spondylosis is a condition which refers to the degeneration of the spine, and can affect the spine at any level. Pain and discomfort typically grow worse over time.

What causes it? Spondylosis is caused by normal wear and tear associated with aging. The degeneration process typically starts with the discs—as the body gets older, spinal discs begin to dry out, lose their elasticity, and collapse. This places stress on the facet joints and ligaments which hold the vertebrae together. As the vertebrae shift out of alignment they rub together, causing pain and discomfort.

Who’s At Risk? Spondylosis is very common, and is often a natural part of aging. Many patients experience no symptoms, but some may experience pain and stiffness.

How Is It Treated? Treatment for spondylosis includes the use of anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, rest, lumbar supports, and in some cases—surgery.

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